Sabtu, 13 Maret 2010

Bujangga Manik's Journeys 1

Oleh : J. Noorduyn

Bujangga Manik's Journeys Through Java: Topographical Data from an Old Sundanese Source
One of the precious remnants of Old Sundanese literature is the story of Bujangga Manik as it is told in octosyllabic lines — the metrical form of Old Sundanese narrative poetry—in a palm-leaf MS kept in the Bodleian Library in Oxford since 1627 or 1629 (MS Jav. b. 3 (R), cf. Noorduyn 1968:460, Ricklefs/Voorhoeve 1977:181). The hero of the story is a Hindu-Sundanese hermit, who, though a prince (tohaari) at the court of Pakuan (which was located near present-day Bogor in western Java), preferred to live the life of a man of religion. As a hermit he made two journeys from Pakuan to central and eastern Java and back, the second including a visit to Bali, and after his return lived in various places in the Sundanese area until the end of his life.

A considerable part of the text is devoted to a detailed description of the first and the last stretch of the first journey, i.e. from Pakuan to Brëbës and from Kalapa (now: Jakarta) to Pakuan (about 125 lines out of the total of 1641 lines of the incomplete MS), and to the whole of the second journey (about 550 lines). These descriptions are restricted mainly to a mention of the names of places, regions, rivers and mountains situated on or near the route followed. The total number of such names, including those in other parts of the text, comes to some 450, most of them relating to the island of Java.

In this article I shall confine myself to a discussion of the topographical data of Bujangga Manik's two journeys through Java, following him on his route, and leave aside the other episodes of this interesting story, such as those about the events at the court of Pakuan after his return from his first journey, the details of his life as a hermit, and his final journey to the heavenly regions after his death.

The last-mentioned episode is a clear indication that the story as such is a work of fiction, and not a history or an autobiography, in spite of the fact that the hero is represented as the first-person singular narrator throughout almost the entire story (only in a few places, rather unexpectedly, is the third person used). Nevertheless, the background of the story must have been based on conteniporary reality, as is proven by the accuracy of the topographical details of the journeys. These details are therefore of great historical value, especially if the time of writing of this undated story can be at least roughly determined.

It is clear from the text itself that it dates from pre-Muslim times. The script used in the MS is the usual Old Sundanese variety of the Indonesian family of Indic syllabaries, which feil into disuse after the penetration of Islam into western Java. The language represents an older stage of Sundanese, beset with problems for the interpreter due to our ignorance concerning those of its elements which have long since become obsolete—the main reason why a critical edition of the text has not yet been completed. It displays a marked influence from Javanese but does not contain one word which is traceable to Arabic, the language of Islam. In the content of the story, too, Islam is completely absent.

More specifically the mention of Majapahit, Malaka and Dëmak allow us, as we shall see, to date the writing of the story in the 15th century, probably the latter part of this century, or the early 16th century at the latest. For the sake of readability and reasons of space I shall not reproduce here all the names which are mentioned in the text, but shall select only those which attract our special attention for mainly two reasons.

For this purpose three categories of names may be distinguished. In the first place there are those which are still in use at present. They are indispensable for identifying the general direction of the routes taken by Bujangga Manik on his journeys, and at the same time demonstrate that the places concerned existed already in the 15th century. Secondly, there are many names in the text which are completely unknown, and though we learn here of their former existence in between the known ones, I shall leave most of them till the forthcoming edition of the text. Thirdly, there are those—and these are the most interesting ones—which can be identified as names of former places or regions which are also known from other sources, or as former names of specific regions, rivers, mountains or still existing places. These names contribute most to our knowledge of the historical topography of Java.

Only the second part of the first journey is not described in the same detailed way as the rest. However, its description contains the information which can be used for dating the story and gives us some insight into the reason for which this journey was undertaken. Therefore this part will be discussed first, preceding those which can be dealt with in the way outlined above.

The First Journey Through Javanese Regions
Bujangga Manik's first journey through Java from the point where he left the Sundanese area is described only in general terms, and in four different passages. First we are informed that: Sadatang ka tungtung Sunda When I reached the limits of Sunda, meu(n)tasing di Cipamali, I crossed the river Pamali datang ka alas Jawa. (and) came to the Javanese territory.

Ku ngaing geus kaidëran I wandered through lurah-lërih Majapahit, the several districts of Majapahit (and) palataran alas Dëmak. the plains of the region of Dëmak. Sanëpi ka Jatisari After reaching Jatisari datang aing ka Pamalang. I came to Pamalang. (lines 80-87) At the time, apparently, the realm of the kingdom of Majapahit extended as far as the border of the Sundanese area (the river of Brëbës, still called Kali Pamali today) and included the whole of the Javanese speaking part of the island, except perhaps for the region of Dëmak. It is remarkable that the latter region is mentioned here as distinct from the districts of Majapahit. This might imply that Dëmak was already an independent state of some size, as it was after becoming the first Muslim state of Java. This would take us to the last quarter of the 15th century or the early 16th century (De Graaf/Pigeaud 1974:39), unless Dëmak had already been independent before it became Muslim. There is no indication as to how large this region of Dëmak was. The word alas, which originally meant "forest", in this and other Old and early Sundanese texts clearly denotes a territorial unit of varying size (cf. Eringa 1949:217-218): thus the alas Dëmak was a part of the alas Jawa.

In quite a few instances our text shows that the word lurah, which at present is a title for a village head, formerly also denoted a territorial unit, but one of an exclusively subordinate nature: Majapahit consisted of several lurah. Only two places are mentioned here as having been visited by Bujangga Manik on his wanderings through these districts of Majapahit. Jatisari is such a common toponym that any identification seems hazardous. Perhaps it was the same as the one mentioned as lying on the road from Dëmak to Mataram in the early 17th century (De Graaf 1958:5, 8).

Pamalang, the small port on the north coast of Central Java, was the town where Bujangga Manik boarded a parahu Malaka (11. 93-95), a ship of (i.e., from or bound for) Malaka, for his homeward journey. The mention of the well-known port of Malaka, which was not founded bef ore 1400 and which became a growing emporium in the decades after that, is an indication that our story cannot have been written earlier than (about the second quarter of) the 15th century and probably not much later than 1511, when Malaka was seized by the Portuguese.

In other passages we learn more about which places Bujangga Manik visited and. for what purpose. When he arrived back home, he was greeted by his mother with the words:

"Itu ta eugeun si utun! : "Look! There is my son!
Ayeuna cu(n)duk ti timur, : Now he has arrived from the East,
ayeuna datang ti wetan, : now he has come back from the Oriënt,
datangna ti Rabut Palah." : returning from Rabut Palah." (11. 169-172)

Palah has been identified by Krom (1914:233-237) as the name of the great temple complex of Panataran at the southern foot of Mt. Këlud in eastern Java. The sanctuary, it seems, was commonly known as Rabut ("venerated, sacred") Palah. Under this name it also occurs in Javanese literature, such as in the Panji tales (Poerbatjaraka 1940:268;Robson 1979:310). lts importance, as a centre of both worship and learning, is fully borne out by our text, both here and further on, as we shall see. Here the words of Bujangga Manik's mother show that it was expected to be the principal goal of his eastward journey.

He himself stressed another part of his travels (or should we say that his journey had had another destination and that he had not, in fact, visited Palah, contrary to his mother's expectations?):

Kakara cu(n)duk ti gunung, : I have just arrived from the mountains,
kakara datang ti wetan, : I have just come from the east,
cu(n)duk ti gunung Damalung, : arrived from Mt. Damalung,
datangna ti Pamrihan, : from (Mt.) Pamrihan,
datang ti lurah pajaran. : from the district(s) of religious (11.593-597) [schools.

Damalung has been recognized by Krom (1923 11:389) as the former name of Mt. Mërbabu in Central Java, while from the Old Javanese Tantu Panggëlaran we learn that Pamrihan was another name for this same mountain (Pigeaud 1924:69, 219). Possibly, the "districts of religious schools" refers to the religious communities on Mt. Mërbabu and perhaps elsewhere, which Bujangga Manik had visited in search of religious instruction.

That such was his primary motive in visiting these places is shown by the results which he had attained, in his own words when informing his mother that he had returned:

asak beunang ngajar warah, : thoroughly instructed in learning,
asak beunang maca siksa, : thoroughly well-read in precepts,
pageuh beunang malëh patëh, : firmly versed in (?) the rules,
tuhu beunang nu mitutur : loyal to what has been prescribed,
asak beunang pangguruan. : having received thorough instruction. (11. 598-602)

Moreover, he knew the Javanese language (tëhër bisa carek Jawa), as well as the contents of religious books (wruh di na eusi tangtu; 11. 327-328). The terms used here show that this instruction had been based at least partly on written materials, had had a marked orientation towards ethics and rules of behaviour, and had been given in the Javanese language. Any "foreign" student had to acquire a good knowledge of Javanese during his studies in these Javanese centres of learning. The story of Bujangga Manik demonstrates that Javanese culture and Javanese institutions were considered by the Sundanese as the primary sources of their higher education in the field of religion, and that going to the east was a natural thing to do for a young Sundanese man who wanted to acquire knowledge and learning. Bujangga Manik's first journey represented his time of apprenticeship. He returned home an accomplished scholar.

The First Journey from Pakuan to Puncak and Eronan
When Bujangga Manik left Pakuan on his first eastward journey, he took the route across the still well-known Puncak pass, following more or less the same course as the present-day highway from Bogor. Only a few of the dozen names of places and rivers mentioned successively here are still preserved at present: Tajur Mandiri and Suka Beurus (11. 45-47) can be identified with present-day Tajur and Suka Birus, while the river Ci-Haliwung which he crossed shortly afterwards (1. 49) is the Ci-Liwung. After finally reaching the pass, the traveller clearly needed a rest:

Panjang ta(fi)jakan ditëdak, : Having to tackle a long ascent,
ku ngaing dipëding-pëding. : I made it gradually.
Sadatang aing ka Puncak : When I came to Puncak,
deuuk di na mu(ng)kal datar : I sat down on a flat stone
tëhër ngahihidan awak. : and fanned my body.
Tëhër sia ne(n)jo gunung : Then he looked at the mountains:
itu ta na Bukit Ageung, : there, that was the Great Mountain,
hulu wano na Pakuan. : the highest point of the realm of (11.57-64) [Pakuan.

The Great Mountain is present Mt. Gëde ("great"), or rather the complex of Mts. Pangrango and Gëde. Much later, when Bujangga Manik returned to this place, the well-known mountain lake lying there is also mentioned:

Sadatang ka Bukit Ageung: : When coming to the Great Mountain:
eta hulu Cihaliwung, : that was the source of the Ci-Haliwung,
kabuyutan ti Pakuan, : the holy place of the people of Pakuan,
sanghiang Talaga Warna. :the sacred Talaga Warna. (11. 1351-1354)

To the east of the Puncak pass he entered the region {alas) of Eronan (1. 66), which undoubtedly was the same as the region Oekoer Aronan which is mentioned by De Roo de la Faille (1895:121), even though the latter — incorrectly — identified this with the 17th-century Wanayasa. The region of Wanayasa lay to the east of the river Ci-Tarum, and at the other end bordered on the Ci-Lamaya (De Haan 1912:169), whereas Bujangga Manik, travelling eastward, passed through Eronan bef ore crossing the Ci-Tarum (11. 65-68).

The remaining part of this journey through western Java (11. 67-79) follows an identical route to that taken on the second journey, though described in less detail, and need not be discussed here.

The First Homeward Journey from Kalapa to Pakancilan
When the ship which Bujangga Manik had boarded for his homeward journey at Pamalang arrived at Kalapa, after half a month's sailing, he went ashore (11. 121-124). As is well known, Kalapa (and not Sunda Kalapa) was the old Sundanese name of the town which was later renamed Ja(ya)karta. It was the principal commercial port of the Sundanese kingdom. Not surprisingly, therefore, the first place he came to on his southward journey overland to the court of Pakuan was Pabeyaan (1. 125), "customs office", which is also mentioned in the Portuguese treaty with the Sundanese king of 1522 and which still existed when the Dutch V.O.C, founded Batavia (cf. Ten Dam 1957: 296). It was situated on the west bank at the mouth of the Ci-Liwung.

The settlement of the region between present-day Jakarta and Bogor, through which Bujangga Manik travelled for the greater part on the western side of the Ci-Liwung, must have changed considerably since his time. He passed eleven places, such as Mandi Rancang and Ancol Tamiang, and crossed four rivers, almost all of them unknown from other sources, the only exceptions being the rivers Ci-Haliwung and Ci-Luwër (1. 136). The latter name is undoubtedly the same as that of the river and village of Ciluwar, both of them not far north of Bogor.

Finally he arrived at Pakancilan, where he opened the gate (11. 145-146) to enter the court. Apparently Pakancilan was the name of a section of the royal court of Pakuan, which was located in the northern
part of the present-day town of Bogor, near the small river which is still called Ci-Pakancilan and which flowed through the length of the royal residence, as is confirmed by the most recent reconstruction
(Danasasmita 1979).

The Second Journey from Pakuan to the Sundanese Border
When Bujangga Manik started from Pakuan on his second journey he apparently first went northward. He passed through nine places before turning eastward, crossing the Ci-Haliwung (11. 676-684). Af ter passing through another seven places, he crossed the Ci-Leungsi (1. 694), which still is the name of the river flowing northward to Bekasi. From there he went southward to a Mount (gunung) Gajah and a Mount (bukit) Caru (11. 695-697), and then eastward to Citeureup (1. 698), which is still the name of a village east of Cibinong, and to Tandangan (unidentified).

He then successively crossed the Ci-Hoe and the Ci-Wintën, came to Cigeuntis and ascended to Goha (11. 700-704). The first of these names refers to a tributary of the Ci-Pamingkis, which flows into the Ci-Beet, which itself is a western tributary of the Ci-Tarum. The second designates a river which occurs on the Ciela map (Holle 1877) as Ci-Mintan, just east of the Ci-Beet, but does not feature on modern maps. The third name is that of a village near the confluence of the Ci-Beet and Ci-Geuntis. Goha was possibly a place or a hill near the resent-day river Ci-Guha, a small tributary of the Ci-Tarum, not far northwest of Purwakarta.

The detailed, verifiable, topographical information provided in this passage allows us to determine with sufficient certainty that Bujangga Manik's west-east route here skirted along the bottom of the foot-hills, where the northern lowland plain passes into the mountain range, at about 100 m above sea-level. Probably he continued his journey in more or less the same direction, as this must have offered the easiest natural conditions for travelling.

After passing two more places he crossed the Ci-Tarum (1. 707) and shortly afterwards the Ci-Lamaya (1. 715). Between these rivers he passed Ramanea (unidentified) and three mountains, and here was in the district (jajahari) of Saung Agung. Although the text does not specify the borders of this region, it is quite possible that it was partially coextensive with the later small region of Wanayasa, which according to De Haan's data (1912:169) was bordered in the west by the Ci-Tarum, in the east by the Ci-Lamaya and in the south by the Ci-Somang, which is a tributary of the Ci-Tarum, flowing eastward from Mt.. Burangrang. This same mountain is mentioned as the tanggëran ("peak") of Saung Agung elsewhere in the text (11. 1207- 1208).

The next river which Bujangga Manik crossed was the Ci-Punagara (1. 70; 716), in Dutch sources usually called the river of Pamanukan after the place by this name lying near its mouth. On the Ciela map this river is called Ci-Cupunagara {cupu "pot"), but since the shorter form occurs already in our much older text, the Ciela fonri does not seem to have been the original one, and one may hazard the guess that the element pu- derives from puhun "origin". After crossing this river, Bujangga Manik entered another district (lurah), called Mëdang Kahiangan ("heavenly" M. or M. "of the sanctuaries"?), and passed Mt. Tompo Omas ("golden basket", cf. Jav. tompo "kind of small basket for husked rice, etc") (11. 71-72; 717-718), which is the present-day Mt. Tampomas near the town of Sumedang. It is not impossible that the name Sumedang preserves the memory of the former lurah Mëdang Kahiangan, as did the region of Medang which existed in this neighbourhood in the 17th century, and was divided between Bandung and Parakanmuncang at the foundation of these regencies around 1640, when the latter part was called Medang Sasigar, "one part of Medang" (De Haan 1912:99, 100, 107).

Next Bujangga Manik crossed the Ci-Manuk, not far to the east of Sumedang, passed Pada Beunghar, not far north of Mt. Cërëmay, crossed the Ci-Jëruk-manis ("sweet orange"), now called Ci-Jëruk, which flows eastward from Mt. Cërëmay, and passed Coman (unidentified) (11. 73-76; 719-722). After leaving Mt. Cërëmay (which he had passed on its northern side) behind him (11. 77; 723), he passed Timbang, Hujung Barang, Kuningan, and Darma (and?) Pakuan (11. 724-725), of which only Kuningan, southeast of Mt. Cërëmay, and Darma, southwest of Kuningan, still exist today. Then he came to Luhur Agung (now: Luragung, sometimes incorrectly called Lurahgung) and crossed the nearby Ci-Singgarung, now: Ci-Sanggarung (11. 78-79; 727-728).

Before crossing the border river Ci-Pamali, i.e. the river of Brëbës, marking the end of the Sundanese region (tungtung Sunda), he passed two places, Arëga Jati {arëga from Skt. agra "mountain") and Jalatunda (11. 729-733), both unidentified. The second name is interesting for two reasons. The word jalatunda consists of two borrowings from Sanskrit, namely jala "water" and tunda "snout, mouth" (Gonda 1973:226), and was used in Java in the sense of "water-spout" and by extension "bathing-place". It has become the name of the famous bathing-place of Jalatunda on Mt. Pënanggungan in eastern Java, which dates from Saka 899, i.e. A.D. 977. The occurrence of this same toponym in the neighbourhood of Brëbës indicates that here too must have existed a bathing-place of sufficient importance for its generic name to have become a toponym, and that Jalatunda is not unique as a toponym, so that not every occurrence of it in the Javanese sources should automatically be considered as referring to the bathing-place in eastern Java, as Berg (1977:397) seems to have done. The Jalatunda of our text is further of interest because it is called here (1. 732) the sakakala of (i.e. "the place preserving the memory of") Silih Wangi. The latter clearly is the famous legendary hero of West Java, known as Prabu Sili(h)wangi, who is usually identified with one of the kings of Pajajaran. But as yet no verifiable facts about him have come to light.

The small piece of information contributed by our text shows that he was already a historical person when this text was written, that his story must have been well known at the time, and that an important event in his life must have been connected with the Jalatunda in this specific area.

Brëbës and Mt. Slamët
After crossing the Ci-Pamali (1. 734), Bujangga Manik passed the district (lurah) of Barëbës (now: Brëbës) lying to his left, while a mountain called Gunung Agung lay to the south. Obviously the only mountain in this part of Java which may justifiably be called "great" (agung) is Mt. Slamët (3428 m), which, however, must have had another name in pre-Islamic times, as its current name is identifiable with the Arabic loanword salamët "prosperity" and therefore dates from after the coming of Islam. We may thus safely infer from the present passage in our text that Gunung Agung was the former name of Mt. Slamët, even though it is not located south but southeast of Brëbës. This is confirmed by the name Kali Gung of the river which flows from Mt. Slamët to the north and runs into the sea at Tëgal.

Gununglarang and the Route South of Pëkalongan 1
In the next lines it is told how Bujangga Manik passed Mëdang Agung, crossed the Ci-Bula(ng?)rang and passed Gunung Larang, on the inland side (dusuneun) of the district (lurah) of Gë(m?)buhan (11. 734-740). There is a mountain village called Gununglarang lying some 50 km south-west of Brëbës, some 5 km south-east of Salëm and south of Mt.

Kumbang (1218 m) and of the Ci-Gunung, which flows from west to east, being a western tributary of the Ci-Pamali. Since there is near its source a mountain called Gunung Bulangrang (1019 m), it is possible that the Ci-Gunung was formerly called Ci-Bulangrang. If so, it must be this village of Gununglarang which is meant in our text. This would imply, however, that the chronological order of the story is violated here, as Bujangga Manik must have visited it before and not after crossing the Ci-Pamali. As it would have necessitated an inland journey to the south and back, this would also mean that he went there for a special purpose, about which we may perhaps hazard a conjecture on the basis of the name of the village (larang "forbidden", "reserved" — for some religious purpose?) and comparison with the pre-Islamic sanctuary which existed in the nearby village of Gunungsagara, on the southern slopes of Mt. Kumbang (Tjondro Negoro 1884: 515-525).

The next part of the eastward journey also went at some distance Bujangga Manik's Joumeys Through Java 423 from the north coast. One of five or six places Bujangga Manik passed before crossing the Ci-Comal (now: Kali Comal; 1. 745) was Moga (1. 743), which lies some 30 km from the coast. After crossing the Comal and the Ci-Pakujati (1. 746, unidentified) he passed a number of places, among them Balingbing (unidentified) in the district (jajahan) of Arëga Sela (1. 749; now: Rogoselo, south of Pëkalongan), Kupang (1. 750; south of Batang), Tinëp (now: Tinap) and Tumërëp (now: Tumbrëp; 1. 753), southeast of Batang. This implies that he did not travel along the coast, via Pëkalongan and Batang, though these places are also mentioned (11. 750-751: "Pakalongan on his left").

Pandanarang and the Mountains of Central Java
After passing about another eight places and districts he came to a place called Padanara (1. 763) or Danara (1. 777), where he could distinguish the mountains of Central Java in the south (1. 764). The location of this place may well have been approximately the same as that of present-day Sëmarang. lts name closely resembles the title of the legendary founder of Sëmarang, Pangeran Pandanarang, who according to local tradition received permission from the king of Dëmak to found a new settlement, which he called Sëmarang, and whose son was the well-known Muslim saint Kyai Pandanarang or Sunan Tëmbayat (Van Berkum 1941:79, 102-103), who abdicated as ruler of Sëmarang in 1512 to devote the rest of his life to religion (De Graaf/Pigeaud 1974:62). It is not impossible that Sëmarang was founded in the latter part of the 15th century (it already existed when Tomé Pires visited Java in 1513), that Pandanarang was an earlier place in this neighbourhood, from which the rulers of Sëmarang originated, preserving its name in their title, and that Padanara, the place visited by Bujangga Manik, was this same Pandanarang, and should therefore be read Pa(n)danara(ng) in our text. If the name of Sëmarang is an abbreviation of asëm-arang, meaning "tamarind trees spaced widely apart", there is also a semantic similarity with Pandanarang, which means "pandanus trees spaced widely apart", and Danara(ng) would be a similar abbreviation of Pa(n)danara(ng).

While staying here, Bujangga Manik enumerates the large mountains of Central Java in a general west-east sequence, as follows (11. 765- 776): Mt. Rahung (probably a mistake for Mt. Prahu), to the west of Mt. Diheng (now: Dieng, Old Jav.: Dihyang) 2, Mt. Sundara (now: Sëndoro or Sindoro) 3 and Mt. Këdu (probably an alternative name for Mt. Sumbing, the village of Këdu lying not far north of this mountain), Mt. Damalung (the former name of Mt. Mërbabu) in the district (lurah) of Pantaran (mentioned by Junghuhn 1853-54 11:415 as the name of a village near this mountain) and Mt. Karungrungan (the former name of Mt. Ungaran) in the south, and Mt. Marapi (now:

Mërapi) in the district {lurah) of Karangian (unidentified) in the south. Damalung was identified as the name of Mt. Mërbabu by Krom on the basis of the mention of a wukir hadi Damalung in the stone inscription of A.D. 1449 which was found in Ngadoman, on the northern slopes of Mt. Mërbabu.4 It is mentioned as rabut gunung Damalung in a text quoted by Pigeaud (1924:214), where it immediately precedes rabut gunung Marapi in an enumeration of Javanese mountains. A wukir Damalung occurs in the Agastyaparwa as the mountain where sang Markandea practised asceticism (Gonda 1933: 347, 394; 1936:226, 227).

That Karungrungan was the name of Mt. Ungaran can be inferred from the fact that one of the peaks of this mountain was called Kroenroengan by Domis (1825:124) and Ngroengroengan by Bleeker (1850:19) and Friederich (1870:502). It occurs as Mt. Karundungan in the Kuti inscription, as gunung Karurungan or Karungrangan in the Tantu Panggëlaran (Pigeaud 1924:108), and as Karungrungan in later Javanese texts such as Sërat Kanda (Pigeaud 1967-1970 11:358) and Aji Saka (Gaal/Roorda 1857:75).

Dëmak, Mëdang Kamulan, Gëgëlang, and Urawan
From Pa(n)danara(ng) Bujangga Manik proceeded to Pidada (now: Pidodo, east of Sëmarang and south-west of Dëmak), and from there to Jëmas (unidentified), where he had the territory (jajahan) of Dëmak on his left, while the Wëlahulu lay to the east (11. 778-781). The latter is clearly the mountain Wlahulu which is mentioned repeatedly in the Tantu Panggëlaran (Pigeaud 1924:69, 124, 126, 214), without any indication of its location, however, as well as the Halahulu which is mentioned in the Aji Saka (Gaal/Roorda 1857:75). An identification on the basis of our text seems difficult, since there are no prominent mountains to the east of Sëmarang and Dëmak. The largest one in this region is Mt. Muryo (1602 m), and the name "split head" would certainly be applicable to it in view of its multiple summit, but it lies north rather than east of Bujangga Manik's route. Then there is Mt.

Prawata (Skt. parvata "mountain"), which is well known as a sacred place from later Dëmak history (De Graaf/Pigeaud 1974:75), at the western end of the Northern Chalk Range, but it is no more than a few hundred metres high. After passing Pulutan (a village near Pënawangan, not far west of Purwodadi), he arrived in Mëdang Kamulan (11. 782-783) and there apparently turned southward, since after passing three more places he crossed the river Wuluyu, that is, the river Solo (Noorduyn 1968:471), and entered the lurah of Gëgëlang, "to the south of Mëdang Kamulan" (11. 787-789).

Both Mëdang Kamulan and Gëgëlang are names of former Javanese "kingdoms" according to the Javanese tradition and pseudo-historical literature such as the Panji stories. Although their exact location and extent remain uncertain (and may have varied with time), our text is the first to confirm that they were a reality in the 15th century and that the local tradition is correct in locating the former in the Grobogan area, east of Purwodadi (van der Kemp 1895:276; Orsoy de Flines 1949:426), and the latter in the Madiun region (its capital lying between Madiun and Ponorogo, Rouffaer in Brandes 1920:98;
Poerbatjaraka 1940:335).

The same applies to Urawan, which is known from the Panji stories as the name of a legendary kingdom which has sometimes been indicated as being adjacent to Wëngkër or Gëgëlang (Poerbatjaraka 1940: 93), and from 17th-century Javanese and Dutch sources as the name of some Javanese noblemen (Babad Tanah Jawi and Pigeaud/De Graaf 1976, indexes), as regards the probable location of which the remark has been made that Bawërno in Bojonëgoro was sometimes called Ngurawan (Berg 1954:200). It now likewise turns out to have been a geographical reality, being a small region probably located in the southwestern part of the Madiun region. It is mentioned in the description of Bujangga Manik's return journey where, coming from the east, he passed south of Mt. Lawu, "that is in the lurah of Urawan" (11. 1080- 1085). Thus it appears indeed to have been adjacent to Gëgëlang.

In Gëgëlang apparently Bujangga Manik turned eastward again and followed a route north of Mt. Wilis. For after passing two more places he crossed the river (bagawan) Cangku (11. 790-792), which most probably is the Madiun river — there are no other large rivers (Jav. bangawan) in this area —, although this name is not known from elsewhere. No more places are mentioned until he reached the river Brantas.

Daha and the River Brantas
After crossing the Cangku, he passed through Daha (1. 793), by which here is meant the region rather than the town of that name, since the latter (i.e. Këdiri) lies much further to the south than Bujangga Manik's probable route, which went straight eastwards to Pujut, where he crossed the river Brantas (11. 795-796).

Pujut is mentioned in the Ferry Charter of 1359 (Pigeaud 1960-63 111:158) as a place having a ferry across this river, but its location has not yet been identified. In the list of ferries, which are mentioned in downstream sequence in this charter, Pujut occurs immediately preceding Mirëng, which has been identified by van Stein Callenfels and van Vuuren (1924:68) with a place lying c. 15 km downstream of Kërtosono, where at present the east-west highway crosses the Brantas. It is most probable, then, that Pujut was located not far from present-day Kërtosono.

The Brantas is referred to here by a name which is unknown from elsewhere, viz. Ci-Ronabaya. There can be no doubt that the Brantas is meant, however, since the same name recurs in the description of Bujangga Manik's return journey, where he crossed the Ronabaya after passing through Balitar (now: Blitar) (11. 1074-1075). The Brantas is the only river flowing in the vicinity of Blitar as well as Kërtosono.

Majapahit and Mt. Pënanggungan
Bujangga Manik's route next took him to (the capital of) Majapahit, which he reached after passing four places, the last one of which was Bubat (1. 800). Bubat is known from the Nagarakrtagama as the plain
lying to the north of the royal residence, which was used for annual sporting events (Nag. 86-87), and from the Kidung Sunda (Berg 1927: 134) as a river-port of the capital. A royal highway (rajamarga) went past Bubat southward to the capital (Nag. 86:2b). After Bubat, Bujangga Manik came to Manguntur, which is described as the buruan, "courtyard", of Majapahit (11. 801-802). This is the aloon-aloon of the kraton, referred to as wanguntur in Nag. 8 (Pigeaud 1960-63 IV: 14).

The other places mentioned before "he left Majapahit behind him", viz. Darma Afiar, Karang ajramanaan, Karang Jaka and Palintahan (11. 803-807), remain unidentified, unless the last one is present-day Plintahan to the southeast of Mt. Pënanggungan. This would seem rather distant from the site of the former kraton of Majapahit at Trowulan, however.

Nonetheless, at this point he was close to Mt. Pënanggungan, since at Palintahan "he ascended Mt. Pawitra, rabut gunung Gajah Mungkur" (11. 808-809). That Pawitra (from Skt. pavitra "pure, holy") was the former name of this mountain was first recognized by Pigeaud (1924:215) and Stutterheim (1925:222), and is fully confirmed here. It was on the acala (mountain) Pawitra that King Hayam Wuruk visited a hermitage when returning from his eastern progress in 1359 (Nag. 57:2), while this mountain is mentioned as gunung Pawitra near Mt. Walirang in the Tantu Panggëlaran (Pigeaud 1924:100). The central peak of the mountain is surrounded by four lower summits, the northeastern one of which is still called Gajah Mungkur today (1084 m). It is the location of eleven archaeological sites, including several remains of sanctuaries and two hermitages; two dates have been found here, A.D. 1463 and 1499, showing that like the other parts of the Pënanggungan mountain complex this mountain was used for religious purposes in the 15th century (van Romondt 1951:18, 19, 44). There was thus every reason for someone like Bujangga Manik to visit this mountain. While he was there, "the lurah of Gërësik (now: Grësik) was on his left and Mt. Rajuna (i.e. Arjuna) to the south" (11. 810-811), which is in accordance with the actual situation.

To Talaga Wurung, Balambangan, and Bali
The first identifiable places on Bujangga Manik's route after he passed Mt. Brahma (now: Bromo) (1. 818) are Gënding (now: Gënding, east of Probolinggo) and Lesan (11. 827, 829). In between them he crossed the Ci-Rabut-Wahangan, which may have been the Kali Pinangan, flowing about halfway between these two places.

Lesan lay in the lurah of Pajarakan (1. 830), which is quite likely since these places lie opposite each other on the east and west banks respectively of the river Pëkalen. Continuing his way north of Mt. Hyang he came to Mt. Arum (unidentified, but perhaps the former name of Mt. Ringgit, just west of Panarukan), in the lurah of Talaga Wurung, where Panarukan lay to the north and Patukangan to the left (11. 833-839). Since Patukangan was a place close to Panarukan (it is mentioned in the Nagarakrtagama in the description of Hayam Wuruk's eastern progress of 1359, like Gënding, Pajarakan, Lesan and the river Pëkalen), this would imply that the region to the south of present-day Panarukan was formerly called Talaga Wurung. This name, which appears to be totally unknown at present, occurred in the 19th century as that of the extinct volcano which lies isolated in the extreme northeastern tip of East Java, some 60 km east of Panarukan, which is now called Mt. Baluran.

In Raffles' time its name was given as Mt. Talaga Wurung (Raffles 1817:12 and map). Some later visitors mention this name as an alternative for Baluran or Buluran (Zollinger 1846:178, 1857:270; Bleeker 1849:289; Stöhr 1874:9; cf. Veth 1882:1076-1078), and explain it from the shape of the (dry) crater as that which failed (wurung) to become a lake (talaga). Later it apparently feil into disuse.

It also occurs as Tlagorung (from T(a)laga-(w)urung) in the Pamancangah, one of the so-called Middle-Javanese historical texts from Bali edited and discussed by Berg (1929, 1927), which was probably written at the end of the 16th century. Here it is mentioned twice as a place (or a region?) on the route between Majapahit and Bali, firstly in the sequence Bubat, Tlagorung, Pajarakan, from west to east (Pam. I 44; Berg 1929:10), and secondly in that of Tlagorung, Pajarakan, Bubat, from east to west (Pam. II 30; Berg 1929:24; cf.

Berg 1927:105, 107). It is clear from our text that the second of these two mutually contradictory statements is correct. In the time of the author of our text apparently the entire northeastern part of East Java, from Panarukan eastwards, also including the Ijen mountain complex, as we learn from the description of Bujangga Manik's return journey that "he arrived at Mt. Raung, in the lurah of Talaga Wurung" (11. 1022-1023), was called Talaga Wurung — deriving this name from the mountain, unless there was also a place by this name.

From there he went direct to Balungbungan (1. 839), where he stayed for more than a year practising asceticism (11. 840-868). Then he went to the seashore and found a ship (parahu) which was about to sail to Bali and from there to Bangka. The captain (puhawang), Selabatang by name, was prepared to take the reverend mahapandita across to Bali (11. 869-904).

It is clear that this sea-port was the well-known Blambangan, Balambangan or Balangbangan, located to the south of present-day Banyuwangi, on the Bay of Pangpang; it was visited by the first English and Dutch ships to come there in 1588 (Cavendish) and 1597 (de Houtman). It remained the principal sea-port on Java's east coast until 1774, when it was abandoned and was replaced by Banyuwangi (Rouffaer/IJzerman 1925:337).

In our text its name is consistently spelt as Balungbungan (11. 659, 839, 987, 1012), which, as De Graaf/Pigeaud have remarked (1974: 298 nt. 268), must have been an alternative name for Balambangan, since it occurs in at least two Javanese manuscripts, once as Balumbung(an) (Nag. 28:1c) and once as Blungbungan (Pigeaud 1967- 1970 111:195).

If we may rely on our text, there was no regular ferry service from Java to Bali. Anyone wishing to cross over had to find a ship that happened to be going there for commercial or other reasons. When Bujangga Manik returned from Bali—no places in Bali are mentioned—he was a passenger on a large ship, a jong kapal or jong tutup, 25 fathoms long and 8 fathoms wide, which was sailing from Bali to Balungbungan and from there to Palembang and Parayaman (apparently Priaman in western Sumatra) under a captain named Belasagara (11. 979-982).


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